PACIFIC Phase III trial data at ESMO also showed an estimated 35% of
non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with IMFINZI® had not progressed after four years
CASPIAN Phase III trial data also at ESMO underscored long-term
benefit in a proportion of patients with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer
Updated results from the PACIFIC Phase III trial showed AstraZeneca’s IMFINZI® (durvalumab) demonstrated a sustained, clinically meaningful overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) benefit in patients with unresectable, Stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who had not progressed following concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CRT).
One in three patients with NSCLC are diagnosed at Stage III, where the majority of tumors are unresectable (cannot be removed with surgery).1,2 Prior to the approval of IMFINZI in this setting, no new treatments beyond CRT had been available to these patients for decades.3,4,5
The results from the updated post-hoc analyses showed an estimated four-year overall survival rate of 49.6% for IMFINZI versus 36.3% for placebo after CRT. Median OS was 47.5 months for IMFINZI versus 29.1 for placebo. With a maximum treatment course of one year, an estimated 35.3% of patients treated with IMFINZI had not progressed four years after enrollment versus 19.5% for placebo. These data build on The New England Journal of Medicine publication from 2018 demonstrating a significant benefit for IMFINZI in the OS primary endpoint.6
Corinne Faivre-Finn, Professor at The University of Manchester and The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, and a lead investigator in the PACIFIC Phase III trial, said: “Previously, only 15 to 30 percent of patients with unresectable, Stage III non-small cell lung cancer survived five years, and the majority eventually progressed to metastatic disease. These data show about half of patients treated with IMFINZI survived four years, and an estimated 35 percent had not progressed, a remarkable advance in this curative-intent setting.”
José Baselga, Executive Vice President, Oncology R&D, said: “These unprecedented four-year results reinforce IMFINZI as the established standard of care in unresectable, Stage III non-small cell lung cancer and set a new survival benchmark in a setting where cure is the treatment goal. With data also at ESMO for CASPIAN in small cell lung cancer patients, IMFINZI continues to deliver impressive long-term benefits across different types of lung cancer.”
In the primary OS analysis of the PACIFIC Phase III trial, the most common adverse events (AE) (greater than or equal to 20%) among patients treated with IMFINZI versus placebo were cough (35.2% versus 25.2%), fatigue (24.0% versus 20.5%), dyspnea (22.3% versus 23.9%) and radiation pneumonitis (20.2% versus 15.8%). A grade 3 or 4 AE was experienced by 30.5% of patients treated with IMFINZI versus 26.1% for placebo, and 15.4% of patients discontinued treatment due to AEs with IMFINZI versus 9.8% for placebo.
CASPIAN Phase III Trial Exploratory Subgroup Analyses in Extensive-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer (ES-SCLC) at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Virtual Congress 2020
New exploratory subgroup analyses from the CASPIAN Phase III trial of IMFINZI were conducted to characterize patients deriving long-term benefit. More than three times as many patients treated with IMFINZI plus chemotherapy were alive and progression free for one year or more (PFS ≥12 months) versus chemotherapy alone (17% versus 4.5%). Across all treatment arms, the subgroup of patients who were progression free at one year had a 75% chance of being alive at two years. In comparison, the subgroup of patients whose disease had progressed within one year (PFS <12 months) had a 10% chance of being alive at two years. Clinical characteristics did not appear to identify patients who derived long-term benefit.
Patients with PFS ≥12 months received more cycles of IMFINZI treatment compared to patients with PFS <12 months (median of 25 cycles versus 7). Although patients with greater exposure to IMFINZI had numerically higher rates of immune-mediated AEs, the two subgroups had similar rates of severe AEs, serious AEs and AEs leading to discontinuation.
The CASPIAN trial met the primary endpoint of OS in 2019, reducing the risk of death by 27% in patients with ES-SCLC treated with IMFINZI plus a choice of chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone. The safety and tolerability of IMFINZI plus chemotherapy were consistent with the known safety profiles of these medicines. These results were published in The Lancet in 2019 and formed the basis of regulatory approvals around the world.7
Results from the PACIFIC and CASPIAN Phase III trials were presented during the ESMO Virtual Congress on September 19 and September 21, 2020.
Important Safety Information
There are no contraindications for IMFINZI® (durvalumab).
IMFINZI can cause serious, potentially fatal adverse reactions including immune-mediated pneumonitis, hepatitis, colitis, endocrinopathies, nephritis, dermatologic reactions, other immune-mediated adverse reactions, infection, and infusion-related reactions. Please refer to the full Prescribing Information for important dosage modification and management information specific to adverse reactions.
IMFINZI can cause immune-mediated pneumonitis, defined as requiring use of corticosteroids. Fatal cases have been reported. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of pneumonitis and evaluate with radiographic imaging when suspected. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 2 or greater pneumonitis. Withhold IMFINZI for Grade 2 pneumonitis; permanently discontinue for Grade 3 or 4 pneumonitis.
In clinical studies enrolling 1889 patients with various cancers who received IMFINZI, pneumonitis occurred in 5% of patients, including Grade 3 (0.8%), Grade 4 (<0.1%), and Grade 5 (0.3%) pneumonitis. Pneumonitis led to discontinuation of IMFINZI in 1.5% of the 1889 patients. The incidence of pneumonitis (including radiation pneumonitis) was higher in patients in the PACIFIC study who completed treatment with definitive chemoradiation within 42 days prior to initiation of IMFINZI (34%) compared to patients in other clinical studies (2.3%) in which radiation therapy was generally not administered immediately prior to initiation of IMFINZI. In the PACIFIC study, the incidence of Grade 3 pneumonitis was 3.4% and of Grade 5 pneumonitis was 1.1% in the IMFINZI arm. In the PACIFIC study, pneumonitis led to discontinuation of IMFINZI in 6% of patients.
The frequency and severity of immune-mediated pneumonitis were similar whether IMFINZI was given as a single agent in patients with various cancers or in combination with chemotherapy in patients with ES-SCLC.
IMFINZI can cause immune-mediated hepatitis, defined as requiring use of corticosteroids. Fatal cases have been reported. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of hepatitis during and after discontinuation of IMFINZI, including clinical chemistry monitoring. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 2 or higher elevations of ALT, AST, and/or total bilirubin. Withhold IMFINZI for ALT or AST greater than 3 but less than or equal to 8 times the ULN or total bilirubin greater than 1.5 but less than or equal to 5 times the ULN; permanently discontinue IMFINZI for ALT or AST greater than 8 times the ULN or total bilirubin greater than 5 times the ULN or concurrent ALT or AST greater than 3 times the ULN and total bilirubin greater than 2 times the ULN with no other cause.
In clinical studies enrolling 1889 patients with various cancers who received IMFINZI, hepatitis occurred in 12% of patients, including Grade 3 (4.4%), Grade 4 (0.4%), and Grade 5 (0.2%) hepatitis. Hepatitis led to discontinuation of IMFINZI in 0.7% of the 1889 patients.
IMFINZI can cause immune-mediated colitis, defined as requiring use of corticosteroids. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 2 or greater colitis or diarrhea. Withhold IMFINZI for Grade 2 colitis or diarrhea; permanently discontinue for Grade 3 or 4 colitis or diarrhea.
In clinical studies enrolling 1889 patients with various cancers who received IMFINZI, colitis or diarrhea occurred in 18% of patients, including Grade 3 (1.0%) and Grade 4 (0.1%) immune-mediated colitis. Diarrhea or colitis led to discontinuation of IMFINZI in 0.4% of the 1889 patients.
IMFINZI can cause immune-mediated endocrinopathies, including thyroid disorders, adrenal insufficiency, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and hypophysitis/hypopituitarism. Monitor patients for clinical signs and symptoms of endocrinopathies.
- Thyroid disorders—Monitor thyroid function prior to and periodically during treatment. Initiate hormone replacement therapy or medical management of hyperthyroidism as clinically indicated. Withhold IMFINZI for Grades 2–4 hyperthyroidism, until clinically stable. Continue IMFINZI for hypothyroidism.
In clinical studies enrolling 1889 patients with various cancers who received IMFINZI, hypothyroidism occurred in 11% of patients, while hyperthyroidism occurred in 7% of patients. Thyroiditis occurred in 0.9% of patients, including Grade 3 (<0.1%) thyroiditis. Hypothyroidism was preceded by thyroiditis or hyperthyroidism in 25% of patients.
- Adrenal insufficiency—Administer corticosteroids as clinically indicated and withhold IMFINZI until clinically stable for Grade 2 or higher adrenal insufficiency. In clinical studies enrolling 1889 patients with various cancers who received IMFINZI, adrenal insufficiency occurred in 0.7% of patients, including Grade 3 (<0.1%) adrenal insufficiency.
- Type 1 diabetes mellitus—Initiate treatment with insulin as clinically indicated. Withhold IMFINZI for Grades 2–4 type 1 diabetes mellitus, until clinically stable. In clinical studies enrolling 1889 patients with various cancers who received IMFINZI, type 1 diabetes mellitus occurred in <0.1% of patients.
- Hypophysitis—Administer corticosteroids and hormone replacement as clinically indicated and withhold IMFINZI until clinically stable for Grade 2 or higher hypophysitis. Hypopituitarism leading to adrenal insufficiency and diabetes insipidus occurred in <0.1% of 1889 patients with various cancers who received IMFINZI.
IMFINZI can cause immune-mediated nephritis, defined as evidence of renal dysfunction requiring use of corticosteroids. Fatal cases have occurred. Monitor patients for abnormal renal function tests prior to and periodically during treatment with IMFINZI. Administer corticosteroids as clinically indicated. Withhold IMFINZI for creatinine greater than 1.5 to 3 times the ULN; permanently discontinue IMFINZI and administer corticosteroids in patients with creatinine greater than 3 times the ULN.
In clinical studies enrolling 1889 patients with various cancers who received IMFINZI, nephritis (reported as any of the following: increased creatinine or urea, acute kidney injury, renal failure, decreased glomerular filtration rate, tubulointerstitial nephritis, decreased creatinine clearance, glomerulonephritis, and nephritis) occurred in 6.3% of the patients including Grade 3 (1.1%), Grade 4 (0.2%), and Grade 5 (0.1%) nephritis. IMFINZI was discontinued in 0.3% of the 1889 patients.
Immune-Mediated Dermatologic Reactions
IMFINZI can cause immune-mediated rash. Stevens Johnson Syndrome (SJS)/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) has occurred with other products in this class. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 2 rash or dermatitis lasting for more than 1 week or for Grade 3 or 4 rash or dermatitis. Withhold IMFINZI for Grade 2 rash or dermatitis lasting longer than 1 week or Grade 3 rash or dermatitis; permanently discontinue IMFINZI in patients with Grade 4 rash or dermatitis.
In clinical studies enrolling 1889 patients with various cancers who received IMFINZI, 26% of patients developed rash or dermatitis and 0.4% of the patients developed vitiligo. Rash or dermatitis led to discontinuation of IMFINZI in 0.1% of the 1889 patients.
Other Immune-Mediated Adverse Reactions
IMFINZI can cause severe and fatal immune-mediated adverse reactions. These immune-mediated reactions may involve any organ system. While immune-mediated reactions usually manifest during treatment with IMFINZI, immune-mediated adverse reactions can also manifest after discontinuation of IMFINZI. For suspected immune-mediated adverse reactions, exclude other causes and initiate corticosteroids as clinically indicated. Withhold IMFINZI for Grade 3 immune-mediated adverse reactions, unless clinical judgment indicates discontinuation; permanently discontinue IMFINZI for Grade 4 adverse reactions.
The following clinically significant, immune-mediated adverse reactions occurred at an incidence of less than 1% each in 1889 patients who received IMFINZI: aseptic meningitis, hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, myocarditis, myositis, and ocular inflammatory toxicity, including uveitis and keratitis. In patients who received IMFINZI in clinical studies outside of the pooled dataset, myasthenia gravis occurred at an incidence of less than 0.1%. Permanently discontinue IMFINZI if myasthenia gravis does not resolve to ≤ Grade 1 within 30 days or if there are signs of respiratory and/or autonomic insufficiency. Additional clinically significant immune-mediated adverse reactions have been seen with other products in this class (see Warnings and Precautions Section 5.7 of IMFINZI full Prescribing Information).
IMFINZI can cause serious infections, including fatal cases. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of infection and treat as clinically indicated. Withhold IMFINZI for Grade 3 or 4 infection, until clinically stable.
In clinical studies enrolling 1889 patients with various cancers who received IMFINZI, infections occurred in 43% of patients, including Grade 3 (8%), Grade 4 (1.9%), and Grade 5 (1.0%). The overall incidence of infections in IMFINZI-treated patients in the PACIFIC study (56%) was higher compared to patients in other clinical studies (38%) in which radiation therapy was generally not administered immediately prior to initiation of IMFINZI. In patients with UC in Study 1108 (n=182), the most common Grade 3 or higher infection was urinary tract infections, which occurred in 4% of patients. In patients with Stage III NSCLC in the PACIFIC study, the most common Grade 3 or higher infection was pneumonia, which occurred in 5% of patients.
IMFINZI can cause severe or life-threatening infusion-related reactions. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of an infusion-related reaction. Interrupt or slow the rate of infusion for Grades 1–2 infusion-related reactions; permanently discontinue for Grades 3–4 infusion-related reactions.
In clinical studies enrolling 1889 patients with various cancers who received IMFINZI, infusion-related reactions occurred in 2.2% of patients, including Grade 3 (0.3%).
Based on its mechanism of action and data from animal studies, IMFINZI can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. There are no data on the use of IMFINZI in pregnant women. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus and advise women of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment and for at least 3 months after the last dose of IMFINZI.
There is no information regarding the presence of IMFINZI in human milk; however, because of the potential for adverse reactions in breastfed infants from IMFINZI, advise women not to breastfeed during treatment and for at least 3 months after the last dose.
Most Common Adverse Reactions
- In patients with UC in Study 1108 (n=182), the most common adverse reactions (≥15%) were fatigue (39%), musculoskeletal pain (24%), constipation (21%), decreased appetite (19%), nausea (16%), peripheral edema (15%), and urinary tract infection (15%). The most common Grade 3 or 4 adverse reactions (≥3%) were fatigue, urinary tract infection, musculoskeletal pain, abdominal pain, dehydration, and general physical health deterioration
- In patients with UC in Study 1108, discontinuation due to adverse reactions occurred in 3.3% of patients. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 46% of patients. The most frequent serious adverse reactions (>2%) were acute kidney injury (4.9%), urinary tract infection (4.4%), musculoskeletal pain (4.4%), liver injury (3.3%), general physical health deterioration (3.3%), sepsis, abdominal pain, and pyrexia/tumor associated fever (2.7% each)
- In patients with Stage III NSCLC in the PACIFIC study (IMFINZI n=475), the most common adverse reactions (≥20% of patients) were cough (40%), fatigue (34%), pneumonitis or radiation pneumonitis (34%), upper respiratory tract infections (26%), dyspnea (25%), and rash (23%). The most common Grade 3 or 4 adverse reactions (≥3%) were pneumonitis/radiation pneumonitis (3.4%) and pneumonia (7%)
- In patients with Stage III NSCLC in the PACIFIC study (IMFINZI n=475), discontinuation due to adverse reactions occurred in 15% of patients in the IMFINZI arm. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 29% of patients receiving IMFINZI. The most frequent serious adverse reactions (≥2% of patients) were pneumonitis or radiation pneumonitis (7%) and pneumonia (6%). Fatal pneumonitis or radiation pneumonitis and fatal pneumonia occurred in <2% of patients and were similar across arms
- In patients with extensive-stage SCLC in the CASPIAN study (n=265), the most common adverse reactions (≥20%) were nausea, fatigue/asthenia, and alopecia. The most common Grade 3 or 4 adverse reaction (≥3%) was fatigue/asthenia (3.4%)
- In patients with extensive-stage SCLC in the CASPIAN study (n=265), IMFINZI was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 7% of the patients receiving IMFINZI plus chemotherapy. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 31% of patients receiving IMFINZI plus chemotherapy. The most frequent serious adverse reactions reported in at least 1% of patients were febrile neutropenia (4.5%), pneumonia (2.3%), anemia (1.9%), pancytopenia (1.5%), pneumonitis (1.1%), and COPD (1.1%). Fatal adverse reactions occurred in 4.9% of patients receiving IMFINZI plus chemotherapy
The safety and effectiveness of IMFINZI have not been established in pediatric patients.
IMFINZI is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma who:
- Have disease progression during or following platinum-containing chemotherapy.
- Have disease progression within 12 months of neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment with platinum-containing chemotherapy.
This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and duration of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in confirmatory trials.
IMFINZI is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with unresectable Stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose disease has not progressed following concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
IMFINZI, in combination with etoposide and either carboplatin or cisplatin, is indicated for the first-line treatment of adult patients with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC).
Please see complete Prescribing Information, including Medication Guide.
NOTES TO EDITORS
About Lung cancer
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among both men and women and accounts for about one fifth of all cancer deaths.8 Lung cancer is broadly split into NSCLC and SCLC, with about 85% classified as NSCLC and 15% classified as SCLC.9
Stage III NSCLC (locally advanced) is commonly divided into three sub-categories (IIIA, IIIB and IIIC), defined by how much the cancer has spread locally and the possibility of surgery.10 Stage III disease is different from Stage IV disease, when the cancer has spread (metastasized), as the majority of Stage III patients are treated with curative intent.10,11 In 2015, Stage III NSCLC was estimated to affect nearly 200,000 patients in the following eight key countries: China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, UK, and the US, with approximately 43,000 cases in the US alone.2
SCLC is a highly aggressive, fast-growing form of lung cancer that typically recurs and progresses rapidly, despite initial response to chemotherapy.12,13 About two thirds of SCLC patients are diagnosed with extensive-stage disease, in which the cancer has spread widely through the lung or to other parts of the body.14 Prognosis is particularly poor, as only 6% of all SCLC patients will be alive five years after diagnosis.14
The PACIFIC trial was a Phase III, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, multi-center trial of IMFINZI (durvalumab) as treatment in “all-comer’” patients (regardless of PD-L1 status) with unresectable, Stage III NSCLC whose disease had not progressed following concurrent platinum-based CRT.
The trial was conducted at 235 centers across 26 countries involving 713 patients. The primary endpoints of the trial were PFS and OS, and secondary endpoints included landmark PFS and OS, objective response rate (ORR) and duration of response (DoR).
CASPIAN is a randomized, open-label, multi-center, global, Phase III trial in the 1st-line treatment of 805 patients with ES-SCLC. The trial compared IMFINZI in combination with etoposide and either carboplatin or cisplatin chemotherapy, or IMFINZI and chemotherapy with the addition of a second immunotherapy, tremelimumab, versus chemotherapy alone. In the experimental arms, patients were treated with up to four cycles of chemotherapy. In comparison, the control arm allowed up to six cycles of chemotherapy and optional prophylactic cranial irradiation. The trial is being conducted in more than 200 centers across 23 countries, including the US, in Europe, South America, Asia and the Middle East. The primary endpoint is OS in each of the experimental arms.
About IMFINZI® (durvalumab)
IMFINZI is a human monoclonal antibody that binds to PD-L1 and blocks the interaction of PD-L1 with PD-1 and CD80, countering the tumor’s immune-evading tactics and releasing the inhibition of immune responses.
IMFINZI is approved in the curative-intent setting of unresectable, Stage III NSCLC after chemoradiation therapy in the US, Japan, China, across the EU and in many other countries, based on the Phase III PACIFIC trial. IMFINZI is approved for the 1st-line treatment of ES-SCLC in combination with standard of care (SoC) chemotherapy in the US and Singapore. IMFINZI is also approved for previously treated patients with advanced bladder cancer in the US and a small number of other countries.
As part of a broad development program, IMFINZI is also being tested as a monotherapy and in combination with tremelimumab, an anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibody and potential new medicine, as a treatment for patients with NSCLC, SCLC, bladder cancer, head and neck cancer, liver cancer, biliary tract cancer, cervical cancer and other solid tumors.
About AstraZeneca Support Programs
AstraZeneca strives to ensure that appropriate patients and their oncologists have access to IMFINZI and relevant support resources. These include educational resources, an Oncology Nurse Educator program and affordability and reimbursement programs, such as Access 360™.
Additionally, AstraZeneca has launched Lighthouse, a program that provides support to patients during any immune-mediated adverse events they may encounter during treatment, through medically trained Lighthouse Advocates. The program aims to make patients’ treatment experience as comfortable as possible. Find out more about Lighthouse at LighthouseProgram.com or call 1-855-LHOUSE1(1-855-546-8731).
About AstraZeneca in lung cancer
AstraZeneca has a comprehensive portfolio of approved and potential new medicines in late-stage development for the treatment of different forms of lung cancer spanning different histologies, several stages of disease, lines of therapy and modes of action.
An extensive Immuno-Oncology development program focuses on lung cancer patients without a targetable genetic mutation which represent up to three-quarters of all patients with lung cancer.15 IMFINZI, an anti-PDL1 antibody, is in development for patients with advanced disease (POSEIDON and PEARL Phase III trials) and for patients in earlier stages of disease including potentially curative settings (MERMAID-1, AEGEAN, ADJUVANT BR.31, PACIFIC-2, PACIFIC-4, PACIFIC-5, and ADRIATIC Phase III trials) both as monotherapy and in combination with tremelimumab and/or chemotherapy.
About AstraZeneca’s approach to Immuno-Oncology (IO)
Immuno-oncology (IO) is a therapeutic approach designed to stimulate the body’s immune system to attack tumors. Our IO portfolio is anchored by immunotherapies that have been designed to overcome anti-tumor immune suppression. We are invested in using IO approaches that deliver long-term survival for new groups of patients across tumor types.
We are pursuing a comprehensive clinical-trial program that includes IMFINZI as a monotherapy and in combination with tremelimumab in multiple tumor types, stages of disease, and lines of therapy, and where relevant using the PD-L1 biomarker as a decision-making tool to define the best potential treatment path for a patient. In addition, the ability to combine the IO portfolio with radiation, chemotherapy, small targeted molecules from across AstraZeneca’s Oncology pipeline, and from research partners, may provide new treatment options across a broad range of tumors.
About AstraZeneca in Oncology
AstraZeneca has a deep-rooted heritage in oncology and offers a quickly growing portfolio of new medicines that has the potential to transform patients' lives and the Company's future. With six new medicines launched between 2014 and 2020, and a broad pipeline of small molecules and biologics in development, we are committed to advancing oncology as a key growth driver for AstraZeneca focused on lung, ovarian, breast and blood cancers. In addition to AstraZeneca's main capabilities, we are actively pursuing innovative partnerships and investments that accelerate the delivery of our strategy, as illustrated by the investment in Acerta Pharma in hematology.
By harnessing the power of four scientific platforms – Immuno-Oncology, Tumor Drivers and Resistance, DNA Damage Response and Antibody Drug Conjugates – and by championing the development of personalized combinations, AstraZeneca has the vision to redefine cancer treatment and, one day, eliminate cancer as a cause of death.
AstraZeneca is a global, science-led biopharmaceutical company that focuses on the discovery, development and commercialization of prescription medicines, primarily for the treatment of diseases in three therapy areas - Oncology, Cardiovascular, Renal & Metabolism and Respiratory & Immunology. AstraZeneca operates in over 100 countries and its innovative medicines are used by millions of patients worldwide. For more information, please visit www.astrazeneca-us.com and follow us on Twitter @AstraZenecaUS.
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2. Kantar Health CancerMPact. Treatment Modality. http://cancermpact.khapps.com. Accessed September 2020.
3. Curran WJ, et al. Sequential vs Concurrent Chemoradiation for Stage III Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer: Randomized Phase III Trial RTOG 9410. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011;103(19):1452–1460.
4. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology. Non-small cell lung cancer, version 8. 2017 Aug 3.
5. Hanna N, et al. Current Standards and Clinical Trials in Systemic Therapy for Stage III Lung Cancer: What is New? Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2015;e442-447.
6. Antonia SJ, et al. Overall Survival with Durvalumab after Chemoradiotherapy in Stage III NSCLC. N Engl J Med. 2018;379(24):2342-2350.
7. Paz-Ares, et al. Durvalumab Plus Platinum-Etoposide Versus Platinum-Etoposide in First-Line Treatment of Extensive-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer (CASPIAN): A Randomized, Controlled, Open-Label, Phase 3 Trial. The Lancet. 2019;394(10,212):1929-1939.
8. American Cancer Society. Key Statistics for Lung Cancer. Available at https://www.cancer.org/cancer/lung-cancer/about/key-statistics.html. Accessed September 2020.
9. American Cancer Society. What is Lung Cancer? Available at https://www.cancer.org/cancer/lung-cancer/about/what-is.html. Accessed September 2020.
10. ASCO. Cancer.net. Lung Cancer – Non-Small Cell. Available at: https://www.cancer.net/cancer-types/lung-cancer/view-all. Accessed September 2020.
11. Cheema PK, et al. Perspectives on Treatment Advances For Stage III Locally Advanced Unresectable Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer. Curr Oncol. 2019;26(1):37-42.
12. Kalemkerian GP, et al. Treatment Options for Relapsed Small-Cell Lung Cancer: What Progress Have We Made? J Oncol Pract. 2018;14(6):369-370.
13. National Cancer Institute. NCI Dictionary – Small Cell Lung Cancer. Available at https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms/def/small-cell-lung-cancer. Accessed September 2020.
14. Cancer.Net. Lung Cancer - Small Cell. Available at https://www.cancer.net/cancer-types/33776/view-all. Accessed September 2020.
15. Pakkala, S, et al. Personalized therapy for lung cancer: striking a moving target. JCI Insight. 2018;3(15):e120858.
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