Only PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy to demonstrate a significant survival benefit in combination with etoposide and a choice of carboplatin or cisplatin chemotherapy
AstraZeneca today announced that IMFINZI® (durvalumab) has been approved in the US as a 1st-line treatment for adult patients with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC) in combination with standard-of-care (SoC) chemotherapies, etoposide and either carboplatin or cisplatin (platinum-etoposide).
The approval by the US Food and Drug Administration was based on positive results from the Phase III CASPIAN trial showing IMFINZI in combination with SoC platinum-etoposide demonstrated a statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in overall survival (OS) versus SoC alone.
SCLC is a highly aggressive, fast-growing form of lung cancer that typically recurs and progresses rapidly despite initial response to chemotherapy.1,2
Dave Fredrickson, Executive Vice President, Oncology Business Unit, said: “The US approval of IMFINZI brings a new medicine to extensive-stage small cell lung cancer patients in urgent need of new options. IMFINZI is the only immunotherapy to show both a significant survival benefit and improved response rate in combination with chemotherapy for these patients, an important step forward in treating this devastating disease.”
Jonathan Goldman, MD, Associate Professor of Hematology & Oncology, UCLA Medical Center, Santa Monica, California and a lead investigator in the Phase III CASPIAN trial, said: “Patients with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer continue to face a poor prognosis, and finding new medicines to improve outcomes in this setting has been a formidable challenge. The CASPIAN trial enables clinicians to choose durvalumab in combination with etoposide and either carboplatin or cisplatin, making this an important new 1st-line treatment option for patients that is both effective and well-tolerated.”
The Phase III CASPIAN trial had two primary endpoints comparing experimental arms to SoC. In the IMFINZI plus SoC arm, the risk of death was reduced by 27% (equal to a hazard ratio of 0.73; 95% CI 0.59-0.91; p=0.0047), with median OS of 13.0 months versus 10.3 months for SoC alone. Results also showed an increased confirmed objective response rate in the IMFINZI plus SoC arm (68% versus 58% for SoC alone). The safety and tolerability for IMFINZI plus SoC was consistent with the known safety profiles of these medicines. The IMFINZI plus SoC data from the CASPIAN trial were published in The Lancet.3
The second experimental arm testing tremelimumab added to IMFINZI and SoC recently read out but did not meet the primary endpoint. Details will be presented at a forthcoming medical meeting.
The most common adverse reactions (≥20% of patients with extensive-stage SCLC) were nausea, fatigue/asthenia and alopecia.
The CASPIAN trial used a fixed dose of IMFINZI (1500 mg) administered every three weeks for four cycles while in combination with chemotherapy and then every four weeks until disease progression as a single medicine. As part of a broad development program, IMFINZI is also being tested following concurrent chemoradiation therapy in patients with limited-stage SCLC in the Phase III ADRIATIC trial with data anticipated in 2021.
IMFINZI received its first approval based on the Phase III CASPIAN trial in Singapore for patients with ES-SCLC in February 2020. IMFINZI in combination with etoposide and either carboplatin or cisplatin is currently under regulatory review for the treatment of ES-SCLC in the 1st-line setting based on the Phase III CASPIAN trial in the EU and Japan.
Important Safety Information
There are no contraindications for IMFINZI® (durvalumab).
IMFINZI can cause serious, potentially fatal adverse reactions including immune-mediated pneumonitis, hepatitis, colitis, endocrinopathies, nephritis, dermatologic reactions, other immune-mediated adverse reactions, infection, and infusion-related reactions. Please refer to the full Prescribing Information for important dosage modification and management information specific to adverse reactions.
IMFINZI can cause immune-mediated pneumonitis, defined as requiring use of corticosteroids. Fatal cases have been reported. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of pneumonitis and evaluate with radiographic imaging when suspected. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 2 or greater pneumonitis. Withhold IMFINZI for Grade 2 pneumonitis; permanently discontinue for Grade 3 or 4 pneumonitis.
In clinical studies enrolling 1889 patients with various cancers who received IMFINZI, pneumonitis occurred in 5% of patients, including Grade 3 (0.8%), Grade 4 (<0.1%), and Grade 5 (0.3%) pneumonitis. Pneumonitis led to discontinuation of IMFINZI in 1.5% of the 1889 patients. The incidence of pneumonitis (including radiation pneumonitis) was higher in patients in the PACIFIC study who completed treatment with definitive chemoradiation within 42 days prior to initiation of IMFINZI (34%) compared to patients in other clinical studies (2.3%) in which radiation therapy was generally not administered immediately prior to initiation of IMFINZI. In the PACIFIC study, the incidence of Grade 3 pneumonitis was 3.4% and of Grade 5 pneumonitis was 1.1% in the IMFINZI arm. In the PACIFIC study, pneumonitis led to discontinuation of IMFINZI in 6% of patients.
The frequency and severity of immune-mediated pneumonitis were similar whether IMFINZI was given as a single agent in patients with various cancers or in combination with chemotherapy in patients with ES-SCLC.
IMFINZI can cause immune-mediated hepatitis, defined as requiring use of corticosteroids. Fatal cases have been reported. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of hepatitis during and after discontinuation of IMFINZI, including clinical chemistry monitoring. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 2 or higher elevations of ALT, AST, and/or total bilirubin. Withhold IMFINZI for ALT or AST greater than 3 but less than or equal to 8 times the ULN or total bilirubin greater than 1.5 but less than or equal to 5 times the ULN; permanently discontinue IMFINZI for ALT or AST greater than 8 times the ULN or total bilirubin greater than 5 times the ULN or concurrent ALT or AST greater than 3 times the ULN and total bilirubin greater than 2 times the ULN with no other cause.
In clinical studies enrolling 1889 patients with various cancers who received IMFINZI, hepatitis occurred in 12% of patients, including Grade 3 (4.4%), Grade 4 (0.4%), and Grade 5 (0.2%) hepatitis. Hepatitis led to discontinuation of IMFINZI in 0.7% of the 1889 patients.
IMFINZI can cause immune-mediated colitis, defined as requiring use of corticosteroids. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 2 or greater colitis or diarrhea. Withhold IMFINZI for Grade 2 colitis or diarrhea; permanently discontinue for Grade 3 or 4 colitis or diarrhea.
In clinical studies enrolling 1889 patients with various cancers who received IMFINZI, colitis or diarrhea occurred in 18% of patients, including Grade 3 (1.0%) and Grade 4 (0.1%) immune-mediated colitis. Diarrhea or colitis led to discontinuation of IMFINZI in 0.4% of the 1889 patients.
IMFINZI can cause immune-mediated endocrinopathies, including thyroid disorders, adrenal insufficiency, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and hypophysitis/hypopituitarism. Monitor patients for clinical signs and symptoms of endocrinopathies.
- Thyroid disorders—Monitor thyroid function prior to and periodically during treatment. Initiate hormone replacement therapy or medical management of hyperthyroidism as clinically indicated. Withhold IMFINZI for Grades 2–4 hyperthyroidism, until clinically stable. Continue IMFINZI for hypothyroidism.
In clinical studies enrolling 1889 patients with various cancers who received IMFINZI, hypothyroidism occurred in 11% of patients, while hyperthyroidism occurred in 7% of patients. Thyroiditis occurred in 0.9% of patients, including Grade 3 (<0.1%) thyroiditis. Hypothyroidism was preceded by thyroiditis or hyperthyroidism in 25% of patients.
- Adrenal insufficiency—Administer corticosteroids as clinically indicated and withhold IMFINZI until clinically stable for Grade 2 or higher adrenal insufficiency. In clinical studies enrolling 1889 patients with various cancers who received IMFINZI, adrenal insufficiency occurred in 0.7% of patients, including Grade 3 (<0.1%) adrenal insufficiency.
- Type 1 diabetes mellitus—Initiate treatment with insulin as clinically indicated. Withhold IMFINZI for Grades 2–4 type 1 diabetes mellitus, until clinically stable. In clinical studies enrolling 1889 patients with various cancers who received IMFINZI, type 1 diabetes mellitus occurred in <0.1% of patients.
- Hypophysitis—Administer corticosteroids and hormone replacement as clinically indicated and withhold IMFINZI until clinically stable for Grade 2 or higher hypophysitis. Hypopituitarism leading to adrenal insufficiency and diabetes insipidus occurred in <0.1% of 1889 patients with various cancers who received IMFINZI.
IMFINZI can cause immune-mediated nephritis, defined as evidence of renal dysfunction requiring use of corticosteroids. Fatal cases have occurred. Monitor patients for abnormal renal function tests prior to and periodically during treatment with IMFINZI. Administer corticosteroids as clinically indicated. Withhold IMFINZI for creatinine greater than 1.5 to 3 times the ULN; permanently discontinue IMFINZI and administer corticosteroids in patients with creatinine greater than 3 times the ULN.
In clinical studies enrolling 1889 patients with various cancers who received IMFINZI, nephritis (reported as any of the following: increased creatinine or urea, acute kidney injury, renal failure, decreased glomerular filtration rate, tubulointerstitial nephritis, decreased creatinine clearance, glomerulonephritis, and nephritis) occurred in 6.3% of the patients including Grade 3 (1.1%), Grade 4 (0.2%), and Grade 5 (0.1%) nephritis. IMFINZI was discontinued in 0.3% of the 1889 patients.
Immune-Mediated Dermatologic Reactions
IMFINZI can cause immune-mediated rash. Stevens Johnson Syndrome (SJS)/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) has occurred with other products in this class. Administer corticosteroids for Grade 2 rash or dermatitis lasting for more than 1 week or for Grade 3 or 4 rash or dermatitis. Withhold IMFINZI for Grade 2 rash or dermatitis lasting longer than 1 week or Grade 3 rash or dermatitis; permanently discontinue IMFINZI in patients with Grade 4 rash or dermatitis.
In clinical studies enrolling 1889 patients with various cancers who received IMFINZI, 26% of patients developed rash or dermatitis and 0.4% of the patients developed vitiligo. Rash or dermatitis led to discontinuation of IMFINZI in 0.1% of the 1889 patients.
Other Immune-Mediated Adverse Reactions
IMFINZI can cause severe and fatal immune-mediated adverse reactions. These immune-mediated reactions may involve any organ system. While immune-mediated reactions usually manifest during treatment with IMFINZI, immune-mediated adverse reactions can also manifest after discontinuation of IMFINZI. For suspected immune-mediated adverse reactions, exclude other causes and initiate corticosteroids as clinically indicated. Withhold IMFINZI for Grade 3 immune-mediated adverse reactions, unless clinical judgment indicates discontinuation; permanently discontinue IMFINZI for Grade 4 adverse reactions.
The following clinically significant, immune-mediated adverse reactions occurred at an incidence of less than 1% each in 1889 patients who received IMFINZI: aseptic meningitis, hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, myocarditis, myositis, and ocular inflammatory toxicity, including uveitis and keratitis. Additional clinically significant immune-mediated adverse reactions have been seen with other products in this class (see Warnings and Precautions Section 5.7 of IMFINZI full Prescribing Information).
IMFINZI can cause serious infections, including fatal cases. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of infection and treat as clinically indicated. Withhold IMFINZI for Grade 3 or 4 infection, until clinically stable.
In clinical studies enrolling 1889 patients with various cancers who received IMFINZI, infections occurred in 43% of patients, including Grade 3 (8%), Grade 4 (1.9%), and Grade 5 (1.0%). The overall incidence of infections in IMFINZI-treated patients in the PACIFIC study (56%) was higher compared to patients in other clinical studies (38%) in which radiation therapy was generally not administered immediately prior to initiation of IMFINZI. In patients with UC in Study 1108 (n=182), the most common Grade 3 or higher infection was urinary tract infections, which occurred in 4% of patients. In patients with Stage III NSCLC in the PACIFIC study, the most common Grade 3 or higher infection was pneumonia, which occurred in 5% of patients.
IMFINZI can cause severe or life-threatening infusion-related reactions. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of an infusion-related reaction. Interrupt or slow the rate of infusion for Grades 1–2 infusion-related reactions; permanently discontinue for Grades 3–4 infusion-related reactions.
In clinical studies enrolling 1889 patients with various cancers who received IMFINZI, infusion-related reactions occurred in 2.2% of patients, including Grade 3 (0.3%).
Based on its mechanism of action and data from animal studies, IMFINZI can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. There are no data on the use of IMFINZI in pregnant women. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus and advise women of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment and for at least 3 months after the last dose of IMFINZI.
There is no information regarding the presence of IMFINZI in human milk; however, because of the potential for adverse reactions in breastfed infants from IMFINZI, advise women not to breastfeed during treatment and for at least 3 months after the last dose.
Most Common Adverse Reactions
- In patients with UC in Study 1108 (n=182), the most common adverse reactions (≥15%) were fatigue (39%), musculoskeletal pain (24%), constipation (21%), decreased appetite (19%), nausea (16%), peripheral edema (15%), and urinary tract infection (15%). The most common Grade 3 or 4 adverse reactions (≥3%) were fatigue, urinary tract infection, musculoskeletal pain, abdominal pain, dehydration, and general physical health deterioration
- In patients with UC in Study 1108, discontinuation due to adverse reactions occurred in 3.3% of patients. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 46% of patients. The most frequent serious adverse reactions (>2%) were acute kidney injury (4.9%), urinary tract infection (4.4%), musculoskeletal pain (4.4%), liver injury (3.3%), general physical health deterioration (3.3%), sepsis, abdominal pain, and pyrexia/tumor associated fever (2.7% each)
- In patients with Stage III NSCLC in the PACIFIC study (IMFINZI n=475), the most common adverse reactions (≥20% of patients) were cough (40%), fatigue (34%), pneumonitis or radiation pneumonitis (34%), upper respiratory tract infections (26%), dyspnea (25%), and rash (23%). The most common Grade 3 or 4 adverse reactions (≥3%) were pneumonitis/radiation pneumonitis (3.4%) and pneumonia (7%)
- In patients with Stage III NSCLC in the PACIFIC study (IMFINZI n=475), discontinuation due to adverse reactions occurred in 15% of patients in the IMFINZI arm. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 29% of patients receiving IMFINZI. The most frequent serious adverse reactions (≥2% of patients) were pneumonitis or radiation pneumonitis (7%) and pneumonia (6%). Fatal pneumonitis or radiation pneumonitis and fatal pneumonia occurred in <2% of patients and were similar across arms
- In patients with extensive-stage SCLC in the CASPIAN study (n=265), the most common adverse reactions (≥20%) were nausea, fatigue/asthenia, and alopecia. The most common Grade 3 or 4 adverse reaction (≥3%) was fatigue/asthenia (3.4%)
- In patients with extensive-stage SCLC in the CASPIAN study (n=265), IMFINZI was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 7% of the patients receiving IMFINZI plus chemotherapy. Serious adverse reactions occurred in 31% of patients receiving IMFINZI plus chemotherapy. The most frequent serious adverse reactions reported in at least 1% of patients were febrile neutropenia (4.5%), pneumonia (2.3%), anemia (1.9%), pancytopenia (1.5%), pneumonitis (1.1%), and COPD (1.1%). Fatal adverse reactions occurred in 4.9% of patients receiving IMFINZI plus chemotherapy
The safety and effectiveness of IMFINZI have not been established in pediatric patients.
IMFINZI is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma who:
- Have disease progression during or following platinum-containing chemotherapy.
- Have disease progression within 12 months of neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment with platinum-containing chemotherapy.
This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and duration of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in confirmatory trials.
IMFINZI is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with unresectable Stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose disease has not progressed following concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
IMFINZI, in combination with etoposide and either carboplatin or cisplatin, is indicated for the first-line treatment of adult patients with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC).
Please see complete Prescribing Information, including Medication Guide.
NOTES TO EDITORS
CASPIAN was a randomized, open-label, multi-center, global, Phase III trial in the 1st-line treatment of 805 adult patients with ES-SCLC. The trial compared IMFINZI in combination with etoposide and either carboplatin or cisplatin chemotherapy, or IMFINZI and chemotherapy with the addition of a second immunotherapy, tremelimumab, versus chemotherapy alone. In the experimental arms, patients were treated with four cycles of chemotherapy. In comparison, the control arm allowed up to six cycles of chemotherapy and optional prophylactic cranial irradiation. The trial was conducted in more than 200 centers across 23 countries, including the US, Europe, South America, Asia and the Middle East. The primary endpoint was OS in each of the two experimental arms.
About Small Cell Lung Cancer
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among both men and women and accounts for about one-quarter of all cancer deaths in the United States.4 Lung cancer is broadly split into non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and SCLC, with about 15% classified as SCLC.5 About two thirds of SCLC patients are diagnosed with ES-SCLC, in which the cancer has spread widely through the lung or to other parts of the body.6 Prognosis is particularly poor, as only 6% of all SCLC patients will be alive five years after diagnosis.7
About IMFINZI® (durvalumab)
IMFINZI is a human monoclonal antibody that binds to PD-L1 and blocks the interaction of PD-L1 with PD-1 and CD80, countering the tumor’s immune-evading tactics and releasing the inhibition of immune responses.
IMFINZI is approved in the curative-intent setting of unresectable, Stage III NSCLC after chemoradiation therapy in the US, Japan, China, across the EU and in many other countries, based on the Phase III PACIFIC trial. IMFINZI is approved for the 1st-line treatment of ES-SCLC in combination with SoC chemotherapy in the US and Singapore. IMFINZI is also approved for previously treated patients with advanced bladder cancer in the US and a small number of other countries.
As part of a broad development program, IMFINZI is also being tested as a monotherapy and in combination with tremelimumab, an anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibody and potential new medicine, as a treatment for patients with NSCLC, SCLC, bladder cancer, head and neck cancer, liver cancer, biliary tract cancer, cervical cancer and other solid tumors.
Tremelimumab is a human monoclonal antibody and potential new medicine that targets the activity of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4). Tremelimumab blocks the activity of CTLA-4, contributing to T cell activation and boosting the immune response to cancer. Tremelimumab is being tested in a clinical trial program in combination with IMFINZI in NSCLC, bladder cancer, head and neck cancer, liver cancer and blood cancers.
About AstraZeneca Support Programs
AstraZeneca strives to ensure that appropriate patients and their oncologists have access to IMFINZI and relevant support resources. These include educational resources, an Oncology Nurse Educator program and affordability and reimbursement programs, such as Access 360™.
Additionally, AstraZeneca has launched Lighthouse, a program that provides support to patients during any immune-mediated adverse events they may encounter during treatment, through medically trained Lighthouse Advocates. The program aims to make patients’ treatment experience as comfortable as possible. Find out more about Lighthouse at LighthouseProgram.com or call 1-855-LHOUSE1(1-855-546-8731).
About AstraZeneca in lung cancer
AstraZeneca has a comprehensive portfolio of approved and potential new medicines in late-stage development for the treatment of different forms of lung cancer spanning different histologies, several stages of disease, lines of therapy and modes of action. We aim to address the unmet needs of patients with EGFR-mutated tumors as a genetic driver of disease, which occur in 10-15% of NSCLC patients in the US and EU and 30-40% of NSCLC patients in Asia, with the approved medicine osimertinib, and ongoing Phase III trials ADAURA, LAURA, and FLAURA2.8-10 We are also committed to addressing tumor mechanisms of resistance through the ongoing Phase II trials SAVANNAH and ORCHARD which test osimertinib in combination with savolitinib, a selective inhibitor of c-MET receptor tyrosine kinase, along with other potential new medicines. Trastuzumab deruxtecan, a HER2-directed antibody drug conjugate is in development for metastatic non-squamous HER2-overexpressing or HER2-mutated NSCLC including trials in combination with other anticancer treatments.
Our extensive late-stage Immuno-Oncology program focuses on lung cancer patients without a targetable genetic mutation which represents up to three-quarters of all patients with lung cancer.11 IMFINZI, an anti-PDL1 antibody, is in development for patients with advanced disease (Phase III trials POSEIDON and PEARL) and for patients in earlier stages of disease including potentially-curative settings (Phase III trials AEGEAN, ADJUVANT BR.31, PACIFIC-2, PACIFIC-4, PACIFIC-5, and ADRIATIC) both as monotherapy and in combination with tremelimumab and/or chemotherapy. IMFINZI is also in development in the Phase II combination trials NeoCOAST, COAST and HUDSON in combination with potential new medicines from the early-stage pipeline.
About AstraZeneca’s approach to Immuno-Oncology (IO)
Immuno-oncology (IO) is a therapeutic approach designed to stimulate the body’s immune system to attack tumors. Our IO portfolio is anchored by immunotherapies that have been designed to overcome anti-tumor immune suppression. AstraZeneca believes that IO-based therapies offer the potential for life-changing cancer treatments for the clear majority of patients.
We are pursuing a comprehensive clinical-trial program that includes IMFINZI as a monotherapy and in combination with tremelimumab in multiple tumor types, stages of disease, and lines of therapy, using the PD-L1 biomarker as a decision-making tool to define the best potential treatment path for a patient. In addition, the ability to combine the IO portfolio with radiation, chemotherapy, small targeted molecules from across AstraZeneca’s Oncology pipeline, and from research partners, may provide new treatment options across a broad range of tumors.
About AstraZeneca in Oncology
AstraZeneca has a deep-rooted heritage in oncology and offers a quickly growing portfolio of new medicines that has the potential to transform patients' lives and the Company's future. With at least six new medicines to be launched between 2014 and 2020, and a broad pipeline of small molecules and biologics in development, we are committed to advancing oncology as a key growth driver for AstraZeneca focused on lung, ovarian, breast and blood cancers. In addition to AstraZeneca's main capabilities, the Company is actively pursuing innovative partnerships and investments that accelerate the delivery of our strategy, as illustrated by the investment in Acerta Pharma in hematology.
By harnessing the power of four scientific platforms – Immuno-Oncology, Tumor Drivers and Resistance, DNA Damage Response and Antibody Drug Conjugates – and by championing the development of personalized combinations, AstraZeneca has the vision to redefine cancer treatment and one day eliminate cancer as a cause of death.
AstraZeneca (LSE/STO/NYSE: AZN) is a global, science-led biopharmaceutical company that focuses on the discovery, development and commercialization of prescription medicines, primarily for the treatment of diseases in three therapy areas - Oncology, Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolism, and Respiratory. AstraZeneca operates in over 100 countries and its innovative medicines are used by millions of patients worldwide. For more information, please visit www.astrazeneca-us.com and follow us on Twitter @AstraZenecaUS.
1. Oronsky B, et al. What's New in SCLC? A Review. Neoplasia. 2017;19(10):842–847.
2. NIH Medline Plus. Lung Cancer-Small Cell. Available at https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000122.htm. Accessed March 2020.
3. Paz-Ares, L. et al. Durvalumab plus platinum–etoposide versus platinum–etoposide in first-line treatment of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (CASPIAN): a randomised, controlled, open-label, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2019;394(10212):1929-1939.
4. American Cancer Society. Key Statistics for Lung Cancer. Available at https://www.cancer.org/cancer/lung-cancer/about/key-statistics.html. Accessed March 2020.
5. American Cancer Society. What is Lung Cancer?. Available at https://www.cancer.org/cancer/lung-cancer/about/what-is.html. Accessed March 2020.
6. ASCO Cancer.net. Lung Cancer – Stages. Available at https://www.cancer.net/cancer-types/lung-cancer-small-cell/stages. Accessed March 2020.
7. ASCO Cancer.net. Lung Cancer – Small Cell: Statistics. Available at https://www.cancer.net/cancer-types/lung-cancer-small-cell/statistics. Accessed March 2020.
8. Szumera-Ciećkiewicz A, et al. EGFR Mutation Testing on Cytological and Histological Samples in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: a Polish, Single Institution Study and Systematic Review of European Incidence. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2013:6;2800-12.
9. Keedy VL, et al. American Society of Clinical Oncology Provisional Clinical Opinion: Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Mutation Testing for Patients with Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Considering First-Line EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2011:29;2121-27.
10. Ellison G, et al. EGFR Mutation Testing in Lung Cancer: A Review of Available Methods and Their Use for Analysis of Tumour Tissue and Cytology Samples. J Clin Pathol. 2013:66;79-89.
11. Pakkala, S, et al. Personalized Therapy for Lung Cancer: Striking a Moving Target. JCI Insight. 2018;3(15):e120858.
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